In its most severe form, it can be fatal. Death can occur suddenly, even when a person does not have a much lower weight than normal. This may be due to abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) or an imbalance of electrolytes, minerals such as sodium, potassium and calcium, which maintain fluid balance in the body. The structural cardiac hallmark of this disease is myocardial atrophy, characterized by a reduction in the mass index and volume of the left ventricle, which commonly results in mitral valve prolapse.
Myocardial atrophy, the structural hallmark of this disease, is characterized by a reduction in the mass index of the left ventricle and a concomitant decrease in left ventricular volume. Mitral valve prolapse is common in AN. Although its mechanism has not been fully clarified, it is believed to be a consequence of myocardial atrophy and reduction in the size of the left ventricular chamber, leading to relative valve laxity even in the absence of myxomatous valve degeneration. This theory of “valvular-ventricular disproportion” suggests that excess mitral valve tissue or improper size of the left ventricular cavity causes prolapse.
This theory is supported by the observation that prolapse disappears in patients after weight regain, but reappears when patients lose weight again. 9 In a cohort study10, the authors observed mitral valve prolapse in most of their patients with severe AN, but found no significant correlation between ventricular dimension and prolapse. In contrast, a low heart rate was significantly correlated with mitral valve prolapse. Therefore, the cause of prolapse is probably multifactorial and may also be mediated by an increase in underlying vagal tone and the resulting bradycardia.
Pericardial effusion can develop with progressive weight loss, but usually subsides with restoration of weight and simultaneous normalization of serum triiodothyronine (T) levels, 11. Pulmonary complications of eating disorders are rare, but vomiting can cause pneumomediastinum. Pulmonary edema may occur in patients undergoing feedback. In addition to bradycardia, cardiac findings may include acrocyanosis and decreased overall heart size and stroke volume. Electrocardiogram findings may include bradycardia, prolonged QT interval, and nonspecific ST-T changes.
Patients with anorexia nervosa have fewer gastrointestinal complications than those with bulimia nervosa. In addition, these patients still have prolonged gastrointestinal transit, alterations in antral motility and gastric atrophy. Prokinetic agents can accelerate gastric emptying and relief of gastric bloating can accelerate the resumption of normal eating habits.
anorexia nervosa(AN) is a common mental illness characterized by self-starvation, excessive weight loss and malnutrition.
Eating disorders can be caused by a variety of factors and there is currently no known way to prevent the development of anorexia nervosa. However, people with anorexia usually struggle with an abnormally low body weight, while people with bulimia usually have a normal or higher than normal weight. Primary care physicians (pediatricians, family doctors and internists) may be in a good position to identify early indicators of anorexia and prevent the development of a full-fledged disease. If signs and symptoms of anorexia occur, the health care provider will begin an evaluation by performing a complete medical history and physical exam.
Staying thin is a behavior that anorexic patients perform better than anyone else and therefore achieve a certain sense of accomplishment by evaluating themselves in terms of their thinness. It is important to remember that a person with anorexia or any eating disorder will have the best recovery outcome if they receive an early diagnosis. Prospective examination of weight gain in adolescents hospitalized with anorexia nervosa in a recommended feedback protocol. Many adolescents and young adults who do not meet strict diagnostic criteria for eating disorders have disordered eating patterns, which can have a significant adverse impact on health.
Thyroid function tests, prolactin, and serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels can differentiate anorexia nervosa from alternative causes of primary amenorrhea. However, if symptoms do not improve with psychotherapy or nutritional rehabilitation, health professionals may prescribe an antidepressant such as Prozac (fluoxetine), Celexa (citalopram) or Zoloft (sertraline) to treat any underlying symptoms of depression or anxiety in people with anorexia. If a person with anorexia suffers from severe malnutrition, all organs of the body, including the brain, heart and kidneys, can be damaged. Although there are no laboratory tests to specifically diagnose anorexia, the health care provider may use several diagnostic tests, such as blood tests, to rule out any medical conditions that may cause weight loss and to evaluate the physical damage that weight loss and starvation may have caused.
If you or someone you know experiences the following signs and symptoms of anorexia, it's important to seek help. Autonomic dysfunction, as measured by reduced heart rate variability, has been described in patients with AN, although a consistent pattern has not emerged when evaluated systematically. About 40 to 50% of patients refrain from binge eating and purging at the end of treatment (16 weeks to 20 weeks). .