ComplicationsAnemia, Heart problems, such as mitral valve prolapse, abnormal heart rhythms or heart failure, Bone loss (osteoporosis), Increased risk of fractures, Muscle loss, In women, missed period, In men, decreased testosterone, Gastrointestinal problems, such as constipation, bloating or nausea. The structural cardiac hallmark of this disease is myocardial atrophy, characterized by a reduction in the mass index and volume of the left ventricle, which commonly results in mitral valve prolapse. Myocardial atrophy, the structural hallmark of this disease, is characterized by a reduction in the mass index of the left ventricle and a concomitant decrease in left ventricular volume. Mitral valve prolapse is common in AN.
Although its mechanism has not been fully clarified, it is believed to be a consequence of myocardial atrophy and reduction in the size of the left ventricular chamber, leading to relative valve laxity even in the absence of myxomatous valve degeneration. This theory of “valvular-ventricular disproportion” suggests that excess mitral valve tissue or improper size of the left ventricular cavity causes prolapse. This theory is supported by the observation that prolapse disappears in patients after weight regain, but reappears when patients lose weight again. 9 In a cohort study10, the authors observed mitral valve prolapse in most of their patients with severe AN, but found no significant correlation between ventricular dimension and prolapse.
In contrast, a low heart rate was significantly correlated with mitral valve prolapse. Therefore, the cause of prolapse is probably multifactorial and may also be mediated by an increase in underlying vagal tone and the resulting bradycardia. Pericardial effusion can develop with progressive weight loss, but usually subsides with restoration of weight and simultaneous normalization of serum triiodothyronine levels (T, 11). People with anorexia usually have a low level of red blood cells, which can cause fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness, and heart rate - all signs of anemia.
Complications of anorexia nervosa can be serious and cause death. In fact, anorexia nervosa has one of the highest mortality rates compared to other mental health conditions, second only to opioid overdose. Anorexia nervosa is a disease with very serious psychological and medical complications. With a mortality rate of around 10%, anorexia deaths are due to starvation, cardiovascular complications and suicide.
According to the National Association for Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD), eating disorders are among the deadliest mental illnesses, second only to opioid overdose. This review analyzes these complications, many of which are resolved with effective nutritional therapy and weight gain. However, the encouraging message is that the vast majority of these, often serious medical complications, are reversible with weight gain and nutritional rehabilitation, as will be described in the third segment of this series. In more severe cases, it can cause a number of secondary complications, such as renal failure, hypovolemic shock (low blood volume), electrolyte imbalances, and orthostatic hypotension.
In addition, some of the complications can have permanent adverse effects even after there is a successful nutritional rehabilitation and weight restoration program. Unlike other mental health disorders, eating disorders have a high prevalence of concomitant medical complications. Specifically, patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) have a litany of medical complications that commonly occur as part of their eating disorders. The reported incidence of these medical complications varies depending on the individual patient and also depending on the severity of the episode of anorexia nervosa.
Despite the above-mentioned cardiovascular complications observed in AN, an exact mechanism underlying the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in this disorder has not been firmly established. In a later article, definitive medical treatment for these complications will be presented in a clinically practical manner. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy complicated by recurrent torsade de pointes in a patient with anorexia nervosa. Multiple concomitant medical complications occur throughout the body and become more pronounced as the severity of the disease increases.
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are intrinsically associated with many different medical complications. Beyond bradycardia, more subtle arrhythmias can create significant complications for patients with anorexia nervosa. The second part of this series will be devoted to the medical complications associated with bulimia nervosa, and the third article will discuss currently available treatments for the medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. In fact, anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder, probably due to these medical complications.
Here is a summary of the medical complications of anorexia and what makes it one of the deadliest diseases. . .